Improvements in Allied leadership, training and logistics, together with greater firepower and growing Allied air superiority, gave Allied forces a confidence they had previously lacked. XXXIII Corps mounted Fourteenth Army's secondary drive down the Irrawaddy River valley against stiff resistance from the Japanese Twenty-Eighth Army. The Japanese burned Panglong, driving out the over 200 Hui households out as refugees. [citation needed], From December 1943 to November 1944 the strategic balance of the Burma campaign shifted decisively. [citation needed], Meanwhile, the Chinese forces on the Yunnan front (Y Force) mounted an attack starting in the second half of April, with nearly 75,000 troops crossing the Salween river on a 300 kilometres (190 mi) front. In such conditions of chaos, it was difficult to improve the inadequate lines of communication to the front line in Assam or make use of local industries for the war effort. On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road, the Chinese 200th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoo, but after its fall the road was open for motorised troops of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashio, outflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan. It was part of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II and primarily involved forces of the Allies; the British Empire and the Republic of China, with support from the United States. In practice, both government and army were strictly controlled by the Japanese authorities. Martin Brayley, Mike Chappell. The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. He was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Middle East, including an Australian infantry division. The commander of Burma Corps, Lieutenant General William Slim, tried to mount a counter-offensive on the western part of the front, but his troops were repeatedly outflanked and forced to fight their way out of encirclement. Scoones (and Slim) were slow to order their forward troops to withdraw and the 17th Indian Infantry Division was cut off at Tiddim. [citation needed], During the monsoon from August to November, Fourteenth Army pursued the Japanese to the Chindwin River. Sittang Bend. The Chinese 38th Division however, commanded by Sun Li-jen, fought its way westward across the Chindwin, arriving in India substantially intact although with heavy casualties. 2002. The Japanese, while having lost their air superiority as the war progressed, were definitely still a threat. This time the Japanese were far weaker, and retreated before the steady Allied advance. The Japanese invasion of Burma was the opening phase of the Burma campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. They planned to break out and rejoin Burma Area Army. Burmese guerrillas and bandits killed stragglers east of the river. There, they found themselves living out in the open under torrential rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. The training, equipment, health and morale of Allied troops under British Fourteenth Army under Lieutenant General William Slim was improving, as was the capacity of the lines of communication in North-eastern India. Under the command of Brigadier Orde Wingate, a long-range penetration unit known as the Chindits infiltrated through the Japanese front lines and marched deep into Burma, with the initial aim of cutting the main north-south railway in Burma in an operation codenamed Operation Longcloth. A strong force from the Japanese 55th Division infiltrated Allied lines to attack the 7th Indian Infantry Division from the rear, overrunning the divisional HQ. Many of them also retreated via the Hukawng Valley route and subsisted largely by looting, further increasing the misery of the refugees. On the other hand, China–India relations were positive from the cooperative Burma Road, built to reach the Chinese Y Force and the Chinese war effort inside of China, as well as from the heroic missions over the extremely dangerous air route over the Himalayas, nicknamed "The Hump". The Japanese forced their way over the steep jungle-covered Tenasserim Range, and attacked Tavoy on 18 January. Sakurai's Twenty-Eighth Army was not ready to start the break-out until 17 July. The Allies suffered 12,500 casualties, including 2,269 killed. 284) - Stille / Dennis - Stille / Laurier: The Philippine Sea 1944 - The last great Carrier Battle (Osprey Campaign CAM Nr. [22], The 17th Indian Division fell back northward. The Imphal operation was finally broken off early in July, and the Japanese retreated painfully to the Chindwin River. The siege lasted from 5 to 18 April, when the exhausted defenders were relieved. The Corps then prepared to capture two railway tunnels linking Maungdaw with the Kalapanzin valley but the Japanese struck first. Britain could only maintain three acti… [23], Though the Sittang River was in theory a strong defensive position, the disaster at the bridge left the Allied forces too weak to hold it. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Ihre Hauptaufgabe bestand in der Ausführung weiträumiger Umgehungsoperationen hinter den japanischen Linien. There was heavy fighting, which attracted Japanese reserves and fixed their attention. There were violent "Quit India" protests in Bengal and Bihar,[33] which required large numbers of British troops to suppress. Strong Japanese reinforcements then counterattacked and halted the Chinese advance. General Archibald Wavell, the Commander in Chief in India, was making plans to mount offensives into Burma even as Allied troops were retreating into India. [citation needed]. [citation needed], On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road, the Chinese 200th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoo, but after its fall the road was open for motorised troops of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashio, outflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan. In August 1943 the Allies created South East Asia Command (SEAC), a new combined command responsible for the South-East Asian Theatre, under Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten. The Japanese tried first to relieve the garrison at Meiktila and then to recapture the town and destroy its defenders. When they arrived they discovered that Kimura had ordered Rangoon to be evacuated, starting on 22 April. The Japanese 33rd Division, Japanese 15th Division and the INA 1st Division had suffered a similar fate at Imphal. Their attacks were not properly coordinated and were repulsed. The majority of the airfields were between Rangoon and the Axis advance and as the Japanese gained use of the airfields in Tenasserim, the amount of warning the Rangoon airfields could get of attack decreased, and they became more and more untenable. Mergui was evacuated before it was attacked. 2nd ed. To cover this break-out, Kimura ordered Thirty-Third Army to mount a diversionary offensive across the Sittang, although the entire army could muster the strength of barely a regiment. Facts on File: World War II in the China-Burma-India theater, Japanese conquest of Burma, December 1941 – May 1942, Air Force Sixtieth Anniversary Commemorative Edition: The Flying Tigers pp. American forces under Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz had advanced across the Central Pacific Ocean, capturing the Gilbert Islands, some of the Marshall Islands, and most of the Marianas Islands, bypassing many Japan… XV Corps operations on the mainland were curtailed to release transport aircraft to support Fourteenth Army. In accordance with the Thai military alliance with Japan that was signed on 21 December 1941, on 21 March, the Thais and Japanese also agreed that Kayah State and Shan States were to be under Thai control. In later months, 70 to 80% of those who reached India were afflicted with diseases such as dysentery, smallpox, malaria or cholera, with 30% "desperately so".[30]. Their infiltration and encirclement tactics had failed to panic Allied troops and as the Japanese were unable to capture enemy supplies, they starved. [34], Burma Corps reached Imphal in Manipur just before the monsoon broke in May 1942. The Allies were also hampered by the progressive breakdown of the civil government in the areas they held, and the large numbers of refugees. 3. preview • burma : geography & people. Burma Campaign 1942–43. Imphal was thus left vulnerable to an attack by the Japanese 15th Division from the north but because the diversionary attack launched by Japanese in Arakan had already been defeated, Slim was able to move the 5th Indian Division by air to the Central Front. He and several other volunteers (the Thirty Comrades) were later given intensive military training on Hainan Island. The Burma campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma. The Arakan Campaign of 1942–1943 was the first tentative Allied attack into Burma, following the Japanese conquest of Burma earlier in 1942. After the Japanese withdrawal, Yangon had experienced an orgy of looting and lawlessness similar to the last days of the British in the city in 1942. This would close the overland supply line to China and provide a strategic bulwark to defend Japanese gains in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. The Thais remained in control of the Shan States for the remainder of the war. The Japanese 31st Division's thrust at Kohima had been a costly failure, eventually forcing it to a disastrous retreat. [43] The Hui Muslim Ma Guanggui became the leader of the Hui Panglong self-defense guard created by Su[who? It was suggested by some American historians[who?] When the staff at Southern Expeditionary Army were persuaded that the plan was inherently risky, they in turn found that Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo was in favour of Mutaguchi's plan. The Burma campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma. The corps was gradually pushed northward towards Mandalay. The Japanese Fifteenth Army under Lieutenant General Shōjirō Iida, initially consisting of only two infantry divisions, moved into northern Thailand (which had signed a treaty of friendship with Japan), and launched an attack over jungle-clad mountain ranges into the southern Burmese province of Tenasserim (now Tanintharyi Region) in January 1942. Their plans involved an attack on Burma partly because of Burma's own natural resources (which included some oil from fields around Yenangyaung, but also minerals such as cobalt and large surpluses of rice), but also to protect the flank of their main attack against Malaya and Singapore and provide a buffer zone to protect the territories they intended to occupy. Although some units arrived, counterattacks failed and the new commander of Burma Army (General Harold Alexander), ordered the city to be evacuated on 7 March after its port and oil refinery had been destroyed. Alth… IV Corps was switched in secret from the right to the left flank of the army and aimed to cross the Irrawaddy near Pakokku and seize the Japanese line-of-communication centre of Meiktila, while XXXIII Corps continued to advance on Mandalay. These efforts have also been criticised as fruitless because of the self-interest and corruption of Chiang Kai-Shek's regime. [32], The retreat was conducted in very difficult circumstances. This was due to its geographical location. The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. In spite of orders to hold on, Sato did indeed retreat. Amphibious landings on the Andaman Islands (Operation "Pigstick") and in Arakan were abandoned when the landing craft assigned were recalled to Europe in preparation for the Normandy Landings. Burma campaign 1944; Part of the Pacific War during World War II: A C-47 transport aircraft drops supplies by parachute to Allied troops in action against Japanese forces; a common event during the fighting in Burma and India during 1944. Die japanischen Truppen der 15. Most of the Japanese garrison died during the Battle of Ramree Island. Recognising that most of his formations were weak and short of equipment, he withdrew his forces behind the Irrawaddy River, forcing the Allies to greatly extend their lines of communication. The 5th Indian Infantry Division captured the small port of Maungdaw on 9 January 1944. On 7 March, the Burma Army evacuated Rangoon after implementing a scorched earth plan to deny the Japanese the use of its facilities. This later led some to question the decision to blow the bridge, arguing that the river itself did not offer much of an obstacle to the Japanese, and that more harm than good was achieved, as it resulted in the stranding of two brigades and delayed the Japanese capture of Rangoon by ten days at most. The troops found themselves living out in the open under the torrential monsoon rains in extremely unhealthy circumstances. A YANK ON THE BURMA ROAD, US poster, from left: Barry Nelson, Laraine Day, 1942. The British had placed ambushes or artillery concentrations on the routes the Japanese were to use. Lieutenant General Thomas Hutton, the commander of Burma Army with its headquarters in Rangoon, had only the 17th Indian Infantry Division and 1st Burma Division to defend the country, although help was expected from the Chinese Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-shek. Unlike previous occasions on which this had happened, the Allied forces stood firm against the attack and supplies were dropped to them by parachute. The port was destroyed and the oil terminal was blown up. However, they misjudged the date on which the Japanese were to attack, and the strength they would use against some objectives. At this stage of the war, the Allies lacked the means and tactical ability to overcome strongly constructed Japanese bunkers. Mutaguchi intended to exploit the capture of Imphal by capturing the strategic city of Dimapur, in the Brahmaputra River valley. [citation needed] In previous years there used to be lull during the monsoon period but not this year (1944–45). [23] The delays allowed Japanese parties to infiltrate to the bridge itself, and the poorly organised defence of the bridge was in danger of collapsing. By extending from South East Asia to India, its area included some lands which the British lost at the outset of the war, but also included areas of India wherein the Japanese advance was eventually stopped. Chiang Kai-shek had also agreed reluctantly to mount an offensive from the Yunnan. Ranges of steep hills channelled the advance into three attacks each by an Indian or West African division. During the first year of the campaign, the Imperial Japanese Army (with aid from Thai forces and Burmese insurgents ) had driven British forces and Chinese forces out of Burma , and occupied the country. Osprey Publishing. On 1 May, a Gurkha parachute battalion was dropped on Elephant Point, and cleared Japanese rearguards from the mouth of the Yangon River. Over the next few weeks, XV Corps' offensive ended as the Allies concentrated on the Central Front. After the fall of Rangoon, the Allies tried to make a stand in central Burma. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. The military and political results of the Burma campaign have been contentious to historians. Not realising that the British were evacuating Rangoon, Sakuma had withdrawn the road block, as ordered, once the 33rd Division reached its intended positions. The Japanese launched several offensives during the month, which were repulsed. Rangoon was initially defended relatively successfully against Japanese air raids, by small RAF detachments reinforced by a squadron of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the "Flying Tigers". The British Civil Government of Burma had meanwhile fallen back to Myitkyina in Northern Burma, accompanied by many British, Anglo-Indian and Indian civilians. The Japanese Thirty-third Army, led by Lieutenant General Masaki Honda, defended Northern Burma against attacks from both Northern India and the Chinese province of Yunnan. Although the Japanese retreat over the Irrawaddy forced the Allies to completely change their plans, such was the Allies' material superiority that this was done. Save for later. [24], Many of the men of the 17th Division who were trapped on the Japanese-held side of the river made their way across to the west bank by swimming or on improvised rafts, but had to abandon almost all their equipment, including most of their small arms. The Japanese reinforced their two divisions in Burma with the 18th Division transferred from Malaya and the 56th Division transferred from the Dutch East Indies after the fall of Singapore and Java. [46], Japanese advance to the Salween and Chindwin. They also had been rapidly expanded, with an influx of Bamar soldiers, and were short of equipment and consisted mainly of new recruits. During the first year of the campaign, the Imperial Japanese Army with aid from Burmese insurgents had driven British forces and Chinese forces out of Burma, and occupied most of the country. [citation needed], The loss of two brigades of 17th Indian Division meant that Rangoon could not be defended. [16] Pressure for independence was growing. The rest of Burma was to be under Japanese control. On 3 July, they attacked British positions in the "Sittang Bend". Osprey Publishing, 18 Nov 1999. p. 14. It was part of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II and primarily involved forces of the Allies; the British Empire and the Republic of China, with support from the United States. Main article: Burma Campaign 1942–43 The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. [citation needed], The Allies launched a series of offensive operations into Burma during late 1944 and the first half of 1945. The Arakan Campaign of 1942–43 was the first tentative Allied attack into Burma, following the Japanese conquest of Burma earlier in 1942, during the Second World War. It was occupied by XV Corps without resistance on 3 January 1945 as part of Operation Talon, the amphibious landing at Akyab. Their duties were varied and dangerous. The break-out cost the Japanese nearly 10,000 men, half the strength of Twenty-Eighth Army. According to Zaloga, all but one tank of the two regiments of the 7th Armoured Brigade had been lost. A new corps, the Indian XXXIV Corps, under Lieutenant-General Ouvry Lindfield Roberts was raised and assigned to Fourteenth Army for further operations. With their forces cut off from almost all sources of supply, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate their forces from Burma. The Battle Honour YENANGYAUN was awarded for actions at Yenangyaun during the defence of Burma in 1942 and the distinction BURMA 1942-43, a Theatre Honour, for actions throughout the period 1942-43 that included the Arakan Campaign in 1943. On 10 July, after a battle for country which was almost entirely flooded, both the Japanese and the Allies withdrew. By the end of March the Japanese had suffered heavy casualties and lost most of their artillery, their chief anti-tank weapon. During the war, the British Indian Army expanded more than twelve-fold from its peacetime strength of 200,000 but in late 1941 this expansion meant that most units were undertrained and ill-equipped. that the campaign did not greatly contribute to the defeat of Japan except for distracting significant Japanese land forces away from China or the Pacific, although this opinion is partisan and hotly disputed. Orde Wingate had controversially gained approval for a greatly expanded Chindit force, which was given the task of assisting Stilwell by disrupting the Japanese lines of supply to the northern front. [33] As the Corps tried to cross to the west bank of the Chindwin by ramshackle ferries to Kalewa, on 10 May the Japanese advancing from Monywa attempted to surround them in a "basin" encircled by cliffs at Shwegyin on the east bank. The ad hoc Burma Corps HQ was disbanded and IV Corps HQ, which had recently arrived in India, took over the front. Three Thai infantry division and one cavalry division, spearheaded by armoured reconnaissance groups and supported by the Royal Thai Air Force, engaged the retreating Chinese 93rd Division. The Burma Independence Army was officially founded in Bangkok, Thailand on 28 December 1941. Campaign: Modellbau Militärgeschichte Fachliteratur Drittes Reich Panzer Waffen Foto Bildbände Luftfahrt Marine Kriegsgeschichte Tank Guadalcanal 1942-43 - America's first victory on the road to Tokyo (CAM Nr. Most Canadians who served in Asia during the Second World War were members of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) or the Royal Air Force (RAF). It fought its way back to Imphal with aid from Scoones's reserve division, supplied by parachute drops. British and Indian casualties were minimal. The leading troops of IV Corps and XXXIII Corps met at Milestone 109 on the Dimapur-Imphal road on 22 June, and the siege of Imphal was raised. The retreat was conducted in horrible circumstances. The 2nd British Infantry Division began a counter-offensive and by 15 May, they had prised the Japanese off Kohima Ridge itself. • naval & air aspects. They achieved several objectives, but at the cost of heavy casualties. The Indian Eastern Army intended to reoccupy the Mayu peninsula and Akyab Island, which had an important airfield. On the Allied side political relations were mixed for much of the war. [citation needed], Also at the beginning of April, the Japanese 31st Division under Lieutenant-General Kotoku Sato reached Kohima. "The British Army 1939–45 (3): The Far East". The Burma campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily by British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of Imperial Japan, who were assisted to some degree by Thailand, the Burmese National Army and the Indian National Army. On 26 April the British, Indian and Burman forces joined the civilians in a full retreat. NELSON,DAY,CRAWFORD, A YANK ON THE BURMA ROAD, 1942. By the end of June, they had linked up with Stilwell's forces but were exhausted, and were withdrawn to India. The division eventually retreated toward the bridge over the Sittang River in general disorder. Although the Allies were still attempting to complete the Ledo Road, it was apparent that it would not materially affect the course of the war in China. [citation needed]. Initially governed as part of British India, Burma was formed into a separate colony under the Government of India Act 1935. The remnants of Burma Army broke out to the north, narrowly escaping encirclement. The leading elements of the Thai Phayap Army crossed the border into the Shan States on 10 May 1942. Burma after Japanese occupation, Yangon, Myanmar 1942. An important objective for XV Corps was the capture of Ramree Island and Cheduba Island to construct airfields which would support the Allies' operations in Central Burma. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under General Aung San. SEAC had to accommodate several rival plans, many of which had to be dropped for lack of resources. At least 500,000 civilian fugitives reached India, while an unknown number, conservatively estimated between 10,000 and 50,000, died along the way. Wählen Sie Ihre Cookie-Einstellungen . As the threat of war grew, the Japanese sought links with potential allies in Burma. Slim and Scoones planned to withdraw and force the Japanese to fight with their logistics stretched beyond the limit. Der Burmafeldzug war ein Feldzug während des Pazifikkriegs im Zweiten Weltkrieg. They were drawn primarily from British India. At Bose's instigation, a substantial contingent of the INA joined in this Chalo Delhi ("March on Delhi"). General Archibald Wavell, the commander-in-chief of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, nevertheless ordered Rangoon to be held as he was expecting substantial reinforcements from the Middle East. The dominating attitude of the Japanese militarist who commanded the army stationed in the country, which ultimately doomed the co-prosperity sphere as a whole, led to local hopes for real Independence fade and the war-time established Burma National Army revolted in 1945. ], who was sent by the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China. War was imminent and, shortly after the Inniskillings had … [citation needed], The attempted Japanese invasion of India in 1944 was launched on unrealistic premises as after the Singapore debacle and the loss of Burma in 1942, the British were bound to defend India at all costs. The British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from the United Kingdom, British India and Africa. The remnants of the Burma Army faced encirclement as they retreated north from the city, but broke through the Taukkyan Roadblock as the result of an error on the part of the local Japanese commander. The original conception of the plan to re-take Burma had envisaged XV Corps making an amphibious assault on Rangoon well before Fourteenth Army reached the capital, in order to ease supply problems. [32] The hastily reconstituted 1st Burma Division was unable to recapture Monywa, but allowed the rest of the Corps to withdraw to the north. The airfields were difficult to defend and reinforce, but Burma Army HQ had been ordered to hold these outposts because of their importance to the defence of Malaya. Before the Second World War broke out, Burma was part of the British Empire, having been progressively occupied and annexed following three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century. [citation needed], Mutaguchi (and Kawabe) continued to order renewed attacks. The major effort was intended to be by American-trained Chinese troops of Northern Combat Area Command (NCAC) under General Joseph Stilwell, to cover the construction of the Ledo Road. The Southern Expeditionary Army Group under overall command of Hisaichi Terauchi was responsible for all military operations in the South-East Asia. On 22 January 1942, the main body of the Japanese 55th Division began the main attack westward from Rahaeng in Thailand across the Kawkareik Pass. Soon some twelve Chinese divisions of 175,000 men,[7] under General Wei Lihuang, were attacking the Japanese 56th Division. They damaged communications of the Japanese in northern Burma, cutting the railway for possibly two weeks but they suffered heavy casualties. By mid-1944, American forces were only 300 nautical miles (560 km) southeast of Mindanao, the largest island in the southern Philippines – and able to bomb Japanese positions there using long-range bombers. Following the capture of Rangoon, a new Twelfth Army headquarters was created from XXXIII Corps HQ to take control of the formations which were to remain in Burma. Burma Area Army originally quashed this idea, but found that their superiors at Southern Expeditionary Army Group HQ in Singapore were keen on it. Das erste größere Unternehmen der britisch-indischen Truppen in Burma war gegen die Küste von Arakan gerichtet. Within three years both Burma and India were independent. The British Army and British Indian Army were not ready for offensive actions in the difficult terrain they encountered, nor had the civil government, industry and transport infrastructure of Eastern India been organised to support the Army on the frontier with Burma. There was severe fighting until the end of the month, in which the Japanese suffered heavy casualties. The command on the front was rearranged in November 1944. In the coastal Arakan Province, some of the Burma Independence Army reached Akyab Island before the Japanese troops. [31] The Burma Corps retreated to Manipur in India. Even during a campaign one can get a little time off, and on Christmas Eve we spent the day hunting. … Eventualaj ŝanĝoj en la angla originalo estos kaptitaj per regulaj retradukoj. This, together with other factors such as famine and disorder in British India and the priority given by the Allies to the defeat of Nazi Germany, prolonged the campaign and divided it into four phases: the Japanese invasion, which led to the expulsion of British, Indian and Chinese forces in 1942; failed attempts by the Allies to mount offensives into Burma, from late 1942 to early 1944; the 1944 Japanese invasion of India, which ultimately failed following the battles of Imphal and Kohima; and finally the successful Allied offensive which reoccupied Burma from late-1944 to mid-1945.

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